Fact Sheets

  • Anti-Trust Violation – The Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibits monopolies and restraint of trade. Violations include limiting competition, attempting to monopolize an industry and price fixing.
  • *Collective Bargaining – The process of negotiating between a labor union and management. Negotiations generally consist of working conditions, wages, hours and grievance procedures. Negotiations between the NFL and NFLPA, when it was a union, also included free-agency terms, revenue distribution and former player benefits. Once the terms of the negotiations are agreed upon by both parties, they are referred to as a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA).
    *The NFLPA is no longer engaging in collective bargaining.
  • Collusion – An agreement, in secret, between two or more parties in order to gain advantage over another party. The owners acted in collusion to restrict players’ salaries last offseason, mainly due to the lack of spending on restricted free-agent players.
  • FMCS – Acronym for The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, an independent agency of the U.S. government, whose mission is to build partnerships, resolve conflict and promote successful bargaining. It provides mediation services to industry, community and government agencies, but most commonly, it mediates labor disputes around the United States.
  • Injunction – An order from a court of law that either requires a party to complete a certain act or prohibits it from doing a certain act. Not following an injunction can lead to more legal consequences.
  • Labor Union – An organized group of workers that band together for collective bargaining. The former players union consisted of each member of the NFL, active and former, represented by an Executive Committee and Player Board Members from each of the 32 clubs. 
  • Trade Association – A non-profit organization formed to provide services and education to its members. Its goal is to advance the interests of its members, but it does not engage in collective bargaining. The NFL Players Association is made up of the active and former players of the NFL and a Board of Directors.
  • Lockout – An agreement by employers not to negotiate for or do business with employees. Players are also locked out of entering practice or stadium facilities and may not communicate with team officials.
  • Pash, Jeffrey – Executive Vice President, lead negotiator and general counsel of the NFL. Former general counsel of NHL.
  • Reggie White v. NFL (1993) – An antitrust class case that established free agency for NFL players.
  • Renunciation – The abandonment of union status as the bargaining unit for the players. The NFLPA operates as a trade association in the interest of players, but no longer represents them in labor negotiations. By renouncing their status as a union, players can now file anti-trust cases against the owners.

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